Radioactive dating of rock samples

Hydroxyapatite, also known as hydroxylapatite, is the major component of tooth enamel and bone mineral.A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material.Fluoro-chloro apatite forms the basis of the now obsolete Halophosphor fluorescent tube phosphor system.Dopant elements of manganese and antimony, at less than one mole-percent, in place of the calcium and phosphorus impart the fluorescence, and adjustment of the fluorine-to-chlorine ratio adjusts the shade of white produced.Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems.Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale.

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In the United States, apatite-derived fertilizers are used to supplement the nutrition of many agricultural crops by providing a valuable source of phosphate.High-pressure p-V data were fitted to the Parsafar-Mason equation of state Re-analysis of these samples in 2010 revealed water trapped in the mineral as hydroxyl, leading to estimates of water on the lunar surface at a rate of at least 64 parts per billion – 100 times greater than previous estimates – and as high as 5 parts per million.Archeology is the scientific study of past human culture and behavior, from the origins of humans to the present.Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.With its focus on the ancient past, archaeology somewhat resembles paleontologythe study of fossils of long-extinct animals, such as dinosaurs.

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